Technological Innovation and Energy in China’s 14th Five Year Plan
n terms of hydrogen production technology, at present, hydrogen production from fossil energy is still the main source of global hydrogen supply. However, under the trend of accelerating global energy transformation, improving the development and utilization level of renewable energy and reducing the total consumption of fossil energy is an eternal theme. Hydrogen production from electrolytic water and other hydrogen production technologies combined with renewable energy provide an important way for the transmission and utilization of renewable energy across time and space, making it possible for renewable energy to be applied to various energy industries in different forms of energy. Internationally, renewable energy electrolytic water hydrogen production projects that have been completed and put into operation in major hydrogen energy countries and regions such as the United States, Europe and Japan adopt alkaline electrolytic water hydrogen production technology or proton exchange membrane electrolytic water hydrogen production technology. Among them, due to the technical advantages of fast start and stop and rapid dynamic response, proton exchange membrane electrolytic water hydrogen production is more suitable for new energy power generation scenarios with fluctuating, intermittent and random characteristics. Most foreign countries use proton exchange membrane electrolytic water hydrogen production technology as the technical route of renewable energy electrolytic water hydrogen production. The scale of proton exchange membrane electrolytic water hydrogen production unit that has been put into operation has reached 10MW, Research on 100MW electrolytic equipment is being carried out. At the same time, relying on several renewable energy electrolytic water hydrogen production projects that have been carried out, major regions and countries in Europe and the United States have conducted extensive research on renewable energy power control, hydrogen energy storage, system optimization and integration and other renewable energy electrolytic water hydrogen production integration technologies. Hydrogen production from high-temperature solid oxide electrolyzed water is still in the research and development stage. The United States, Japan and South Korea are carrying out research on the integration of electrolytic cell materials to stack and system integration.
In terms of hydrogen storage and transportation, internationally, in terms of gaseous storage and transportation technology, the working pressure of high-pressure hydrogen storage for transportation has been increased to 30 ~ 40MPa. Britain, Italy, Germany, France, the Netherlands and other European countries have carried out research and demonstration of hydrogen mixing technology in natural gas pipelines, with a hydrogen mixing ratio of 2% ~ 20% and a maximum hydrogen mixing amount of 285nm ³/ h. In addition, the design and construction technology of foreign long-distance hydrogen transmission pipeline is generally mature, and several pure hydrogen transmission pipelines have been built, with a total mileage of more than 4600 km; In terms of liquid storage and transportation technology, the international low-temperature liquid storage and transportation technology has achieved a hydrogen liquefaction capacity of more than 30 tons / day and a volume of up to 3800m ³ Spherical liquid hydrogen storage tank, and it is applied to vehicle and ship based on large storage tank system; In terms of solid-state storage and transportation technology, 1000m hydrogen storage capacity has been developed internationally ³、 The volumetric hydrogen storage density is about 38kg / m ³ The rare earth alloy low-pressure hydrogen storage device has made a breakthrough in the field of on-board system and fixed hydrogen storage.
In terms of fuel cells, internationally, proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology is mainly used in standby power supply and domestic fuel cell cogeneration system. The 0.7 ~ 2kW fuel cell system with natural gas as fuel produced by Japan energy farm project has a total efficiency of more than 90%; In terms of solid oxide fuel cell technology, the United States and Japan have taken the lead, followed by Europe and South Korea. Some leading technologies have achieved preliminary industrialization. The United States has realized the popularization and application of commercial distributed solid oxide fuel cells, with system efficiency of 53% ~ 65% and power level of 200kW ~ 300kW. Japan adopts 700W solid oxide fuel cell system in energy farm (ene-farm), with power generation efficiency of 53.5% and comprehensive efficiency of 87%; In terms of molten carbonate fuel cell technology, the United States is developing and researching the fuel cell gas turbine power generation system with natural gas as fuel, and has developed commercial products of molten carbonate fuel cell of 300kW ~ 2.8MW, with power generation efficiency greater than 47%; South Korea has built 18 molten carbonate fuel cell power stations in 13 regions, with a total installed capacity of 140MW, of which the largest molten carbonate fuel cell power station has a power of 59mw.
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